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Common Terminologies In Video Production

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Every profession has words or terminologies used to name or to explain mode of works in all field, this words or terminology is well spoken and well comprehend by the experts in those field. Video Production, film works and its related  has taken its place as a profession  which some terms can only be understood by those that knows how or has undergone one form of training or the other.

It’s time to learn some common terminology, words and meaning use in video production and largely as related to film, cinematography and all category of video works.

Ambient Light:

General, non – directional, room light. (Lighting)

Aperture:

A variable opening inside a lens that regulates the amount of light reaching the image plane. Also known as an iris. (Camera/Lighting)

A/B Rolls:

Two or more rolls of film having alternate scenes intercut with opaque leaders in such a way that the ‘A’ roll presents its picture at the same time that the ‘B’ roll presents opaque leader, and vice versa. (Film Editing)

Aerial Shot:

An extremely high angle view of a subject usually taken from a crane or a high stationary camera position, but may also refer to a shot taken from an actual airplane or helicopter. (Production).

Aspect Ratio:

The proportion of picture width to height (1.33:1, 1.66:1, 1.85:1 or 2.35:1).

Backlight:

A light which is generally mounted behind a subject to light the subject’s hair and shoulders without illuminating a subject’s front. (Lighting)

Barndoors:

Folding doors which are mounted on to the front of a light unit in order to control illumination. (Lighting)

Camera Angle:

The view point chosen from which to photograph a subject. (Cinematography)

CC Filters:

Color compensating filters made in precise density values of the primary and secondary colors. (Cinematography)



Condenser Microphone:

The simplest type of microphone in which the capacitance (electrical charge) is varied by sound, causing movement in one plate (diaphragm) in relation to a fixed back plate Coverage:

An indeterminate number of more detailed shots which are intended to be intercut with a master shot or scene. (Production)

Crossfade:

The gradual mix of sound sources accomplished by the simultaneous manipulation of two or more mix console faders. (Post Production)

Cutaway:

A single shot inserted into a sequence of shots that momentarily interrupts the flow of action, usually introducing a pertinent detail. (Production/Editing)

DAT (Digital Audio Tape):

Two-channel digital audio has become increasingly common as a professional master reference and for use in field recording. (Sound)

DAW (Digital Audio Workstation):

A computer-based recording and editing machine used for manipulating sounds. (Sound)

Depth of Field:

The amount of space within lens view which will maintain acceptable focus at given settings (i.e. camera speed, film speed, lens aperture). (Cinematography)

Dolly Shot:

Any shot made from a moving dolly. These may also be called tracking or traveling shots. (Production)

Dub:

To make a taped copy of any progam source record, CD, tape. Also, the copy itself. Sometimes used to refer to the ADR process. (Audio/Video)

Edge track:

A standard position for the placement of the audio on a single perforation magnetic film.

Edit Master:

Video industry term for the tape containing the finished (edited) program.

Establishing Shot:

Usually a long shot at the beginning of a scene which is intended to inform the audience about a changed locale or time for the scene which follows. (Production)

Exciter Lamp:

Filter:

A transparent material having the ability to absorb certain wavelengths of light and transmit others.

Flicker:

The alternation of light and dark which can be visually perceived.

Frame:

The individual picture image on a strip of motion picture film. Also, one complete screen on videotape.

Gaffer:

The chief lighting technician for a production who is in charge of the electrical department.

Grading:

The process of selecting the printing values for color and density fo successive scenes in a complete film to produce the desire visual effects. (Laboratory)

Hard Disk:

A data storage and retrieval device consisting of a disk drive and one or more permanently installed disks. Increasingly common for storing sound effects and archiving for future use.

Hollywood Box:

A stage plug-type box without fuses. (Lighting)

Insert Editing:

Used in videotape or digital audio editing to describe the process of replacing a segment located between two specific and previously dubbed segments.

Iris:

A variable aperture that controls exposure or the amount of light which is released from a lighting unit. (Camera/Lighting)

Jib Arm:

A mechanical are which is supported on a dolly, tripod, or other device, which is counterweighted to hold a camera for an increased range of motion. (Production)

Key Light:

The main light on a subject. (Lighting)

Kiss:

A light that gently brushes a subject. (Lighting)

Library Shot:

Stock footage shot or other footage which is germane to a given visual presentation but which was not generated for that specific film or television presentation. (Film Editing)

Looping:

A continuous sound track that runs repeatedly in playback as a guide for re recording. (Post Production)

Lowkey:

A high contrast lighting style with lost of shadows and large areas of darkness. (Lighting)

Montage:

The assembly of shots and the portrayal of action or ideas through the use of many short shots. (Film Editing)

Multitrack:

An audio tape recorder capable of handling more than two tracks of information separately.

Noise:

In audio systems, noise is the electrical interference or other unwanted sound introduced into the system (i.e. hiss, hum, rumble, crosstalk, etc). (Sound)

NTSC:

National Television Standards Committee. The organization that sets the American broadcast and videotape format standards for the FCC. Color television is currently set at 525 lines per frame, 29.97 frames per second.

Opacity:

The ratio of the amount of light falling on a surface to the amount of light which is transmitted. (Lighting)

Out-Take:

A take of a scene which is not used for printing or for the final assembly of a film.

PAL (Phase Alternating Line):

The European color television standard that specifies a 25Hz frame rate and 625 lines per frame.

Pan:

A horizontal movement of a camera on a fixed axis.

Playback:

A technique of filming music action first, the playing the music through loudspeakers while performers dance, sing, etc.

Post-Production:

The period in a project’s development that takes place after the picture is delivered, or “after the production.” This term might also be applied to video/film editing or refer to audio post-production.

Redhead:

An open faced 1K lighting unit. Also known as a ‘Mickey’. (Lighting)

Re-recording:

The process of mixing all edited music, effects and dialog tracks of a film or video production to mono, stereo, multichannel or whatever audio format is desired for the final print master.

Reverse Angle:

A shot that is turned approximately 180 degrees in relation to the preceding shot. (Cinematography)

Rough cut:

A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots are laid out in approximate relationship to an end product without detailed attention to the individual cutting points. (Film Editing)

Shotgun Mic:

A highly directional microphone, usually with a long, tubular body; used by the production sound mixer on location or on the set for film and television productions.

Soundtrack:

Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production, including effects and dialog.

Voice-over:

Narration or non-synchronous dialog taking place over the action onscreen.

Zoom:

An optical effect in which the image rapidly grows larger or smaller as though the camera is moving closer or away from its subject.

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